Imam Al-Nawawi’s Riyad-us-Saliheen
Scholars said: It is necessary to repent from every sin. If the offense involves the Right of Allah, not a human, then there are three condition to be met in order that repentance be accepted by Allah:
1- To desist from committing it.
2- To feel sorry for committing it.
3- To decide not to recommit it.
Any repentance failing to meet any of these three conditions, would not be sound.
But if the sin involves a human’s right, it requires a fourth condition, i.e., to absolve onself from such right. If it is a property, he should return it to its rightful owner. If it is slandering or backbiting, one should ask the pardon of the offended.
One should also repent from all sins. If he repents from some, his repentance would still be sound according to the people of sound knowledge. He should, however, repent from the rest. Scriptural proofs from the Book and the Sunnah and the consensus of the scholars support the incumbency of repentance.
Allah, the, Exalted says:
“And all of you beg Allah to forgive you, O believers, that you may be successful”. (24:31)
“Seek the forgiveness of your Rubb, and turn to Him in repentance”. (11:3)
“O you who believe! Turn to Allah with sincere repentance!”. (66:8)
13. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) saying: “By Allah, I seek Allah’s forgiveness and repent to Him more than seventy times a day.”
1. It is an inducement for seeking pardon and forgiveness. The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), whose past and future sins were forgiven, asked Allah’s forigveness – then how about us, who commit sins on regular basis, not to seek pardon and forgiveness from Allah?
2. Sincere and ceaseless prayer for pardon is essential so that sins committed by us unintentionally are also forgiven. The above Hadith lays great emphasis on seeking pardon.
14. Al-Agharr bin Yasar Al-Muzani (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “Turn you people in repentance to Allah and beg pardon of Him. I turn to Him in repentance a hundred times a day”.
15 Anas bin Malik Al-Ansari (MayAllah be pleased with him) the servant of the Messenger of Allah narrated: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Verily, Allah is more delighted with the repentance of His slave than a person who lost his camel in a desert land and then finds it (unexpectedly)”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
In another version of Muslim, he said: “Verily, Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His slave than a person who has his camel in a waterless desert carrying his provision of food and drink and it is lost. He, having lost all hopes (to get that back), lies down in shade and is disappointed about his camel; when all of a sudden he finds that camel standing before him. He takes hold of its reins and then out of boundless joy blurts out: ‘O Allah, You are my slave and I am Your Rubb’.He commits this mistake out of extreme joy”.
1. This Hadith also deals with the inducement and merit of repentance and pardon for sins. Allah is highly pleased with repentance.
2 One will not have to account for a mistake made without any purpose and intention.
3. It is permissible to take an oath to stress on one’s pardon.
4. One can quote an instance for the purpose of understanding and elaboration.
16. Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allah, the Exalted, will continue to stretch out His Hand in the night so that the sinners of the day may repent, and continue to stretch His Hand in the daytime so that the sinners of the night may repent, until the sun rises from the west”.
Commentary: This Hadith confirms an essential Attribute of Allah, i.e., the Hand which He stretches out anytime He wishes without drawing similarity to it, nor interpretation. Such was the attitude of the pious predecessors with regards to all of the essential Attributes of Allah. It is deduced from this Hadith that if one commits a sin during any hour of day or night, he should immediately seek the forgiveness of Allah as a result.
17. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “He who repents before the sun rises from the west, Allah will forgive him”.
Commentary: Taubah means returning to Allah from sins. When a person commits a sin, he goes away from Allah. When he repents, he returns to Allah and desires for being pardoned by Him, and getting near Him. This returning towards Him is Taubah. When it is said that `Allah turns towards him’, it means that Allah accepts his repentance.
18. `Abdullah bin `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Allah accepts a slave’s repentance as long as the latter is not on his death bed (that is, before the soul of the dying person reaches the throat)”.
[At-Tirmidhi, who categorised it as Hadith Hasan].
Commentary: The word Ghargharah means the stage when soul is about to leave the body and reaches the throat. In other words, the time when one suffers the agony of death.
Hadith Hasan means that Hadith the authenticity of which is connected without any technical defect. Their narrators, however, are next to those of Hadith Sahih. In the opinion of Muhaddithin (Hadith scholars), Hadith Hasan is also reliable as Hadith Sahih.
19. Zirr bin Hubaish reported: I went to Safwan bin `Assal (May Allah be pleased with him) to inquire about wiping with wet hands over light boots while performing Wudu’. He asked me, “What brings you here, Zirr?” I answered: “Search for knowledge”. He said, “Angels spread their wings for the seeker of knowledge out of joy for what he seeks”. I told him, “I have some doubts in my mind regarding wiping of wet hands over light boots in the course of performing Wudu’ after defecation or urinating. Now since you are one of the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), I have come to ask you whether you heard any saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) concerning it?”. He replied in the affirmative and said, “He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) instructed us that during a journey we need not take off our light boots for washing the feet up to three days and nights, except in case of major impurity (after sexual intercourse). In other cases such as sleeping, relieving oneself or urinating, the wiping of wet hands over light boots will suffice.” I, then, questioned him, “Did you hear him say anything about love and affection?” He replied, “We accompanied the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in a journey when a bedouin called out in a loud voice, `O Muhammad.’ The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) replied him in the same tone, `Here I am.‘ I said to him (the bedouin), `Woe to you, lower your voice in his presence, because you are not allowed to do so.’ He said, `By Allah! I will not lower my voice,’ and then addressing the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) he said, `What about a person who loves people but has not found himself in their company.’ Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) replied, `On the Day of Resurrection, a person will be in the company of those whom he loves.‘ The Messenger of Allah then kept on talking to us and in the course of his talk, he mentioned a gateway in the heaven, the width of which could be crossed by a rider in forty or seventy years”.
Sufyan, one of the narrators of this tradition, said: “This gateway is in the direction of Syria. Allah created it on the day He created the heavens and the earth. It is open for repentance and will not be shut until the sun rises from that direction (i.e., the West) (on Doomsday)”.
[At-Tirmidhi, who categorised it as Hadith Hasan Sahih]
1. We learn from this Hadith that in ablution, it is permissible to wipe over light boots rather than washing the feet. It is called Mash. The period, in which Mash is intact, in case of travellers it is three days and three nights; while for the residents, it is one day and one night only. A precondition for it is that light boots should be clean and worn after full Wudu’. Ankles should also be covered. In case of breach of ablution, the wiping over the socks is sufficient, and there is no need for washing the feet. Wudu’ is invalidated by sleeping, call of nature and passing of wind. This is called Hadath Asghar. In the case of Hadath Akbar, which occurs because of coitus, menses and wet dream, washing of the whole body becomes obligatory. It means that the privilege of wiping over the light boots is also finished in this case, in the same way as it does after the expiry of period specified for it.
2. One should associate himself with the pious people so that he is counted among them. One also comes to know many other points from this Hadith which every intelligent person can understand with a little effort.
20. Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Prophet of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “There was a man from among a nation before you who killed ninety-nine people and then made an inquiry about the most learned person on the earth. He was directed to a monk. He came to him and told him that he had killed ninety-nine people and asked him if there was any chance for his repentance to be accepted. He replied in the negative and the man killed him also completing one hundred. He then asked about the most learned man in the earth. He was directed to a scholar. He told him that he had killed one hundred people and asked him if there was any chance for his repentance to be accepted. He replied in the affirmative and asked, `Who stands between you and repentance? Go to such and such land; there (you will find) people devoted to prayer and worship of Allah, join them in worship, and do not come back to your land because it is an evil place.’ So he went away and hardly had he covered half the distance when death overtook him; and there was a dispute between the angels of mercy and the angels of torment. The angels of mercy pleaded, ‘This man has come with a repenting heart to Allah,’ and the angels of punishment argued, ‘He never did a virtuous deed in his life.’ Then there appeared another angel in the form of a human being and the contending angels agreed to make him arbiter between them. He said, `Measure the distance between the two lands. He will be considered belonging to the land to which he is nearer.’ They measured and found him closer to the land (land of piety) where he intended to go, and so the angels of mercy collected his soul”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
In another version: “He was found to be nearer to the locality of the pious by a cubit and was thus included among them”. Another version says: “Allah commanded (the land which he wanted to leave) to move away and commanded the other land (his destination) to draw nearer and then He said: “Now measure the distance between them.’ It was found that he was nearer to his goal by a hand’s span and was thus forgiven”. It is also narrated that he drew closer by a slight movement on his chest.
1. One comes to know from this Hadith that the gate of Taubah is open even for the worst of the sinners; and Allah forgives everyone provided he repents sincerely, the conditions for such repentance have already been discussed.
2. It is the duty of a religious scholar that while discussing a problem, he should keep in mind the psychological aspects of the questioner and adopt a policy which neither causes a change in the Injunction of Allah nor make the sinner reckless in his sins out of frustration.
3. When a situation warrants, angels appear in the form of men on Orders of Allah.
21. Abdullah bin Ka`b, who served as the guide of Ka`b bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) when he became blind, narrated: I heard Ka`b bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) narrating the story of his remaining behind instead of joining Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) when he left for the battle of Tabuk. Ka`b said: “I accompanied Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in every expedition which he undertook excepting the battle of Tabuk and the battle of Badr. As for the battle of Badr, nobody was blamed for remaining behind as Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and the Muslims, when they set out, had in mind only to intercept the caravan of the Quraish. Allah made them confront their enemies unexpectedly. I had the honour of being with Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) on the night of `Aqabah when we pledged our allegiance to Islam and it was dearer to me than participating in the battle of Badr, although Badr was more well-known among the people than that. And this is the account of my staying behind from the battle of Tabuk. I never had better means and more favourable circumstances than at the time of this expedition. And by Allah, I had never before possessed two riding-camels as I did during the time of this expedition. Whenever Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) decided to go on a campaign, he would not disclose his real destination till the last moment (of departure). But on this expedition, he set out in extremely hot weather; the journey was long and the terrain was waterless desert; and he had to face a strong army, so he informed the Muslims about the actual position so that they should make full preparation for the campaign. And the Muslims who accompanied Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) at that time were in large number but no proper record of them was maintained.” Ka`b (further) said: “Few were the persons who chose to remain absent believing that they could easily hide themselves (and thus remain undetected) unless Revelation from Allah, the Exalted, and Glorious (revealed relating to them). And Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) set out on this expedition when the fruit were ripe and their shade was sought. I had a weakness for them and it was during this season that Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and the Muslims made preparations. I also would set out in the morning to make preparations along with them but would come back having done nothing and said to myself: ‘I have means enough (to make preparations) as soon as I like’. And I went on doing this (postponing my preparations) till the time of departure came and it was in the morning that Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) set out along with the Muslims, but I had made no preparations. I would go early in the morning and come back, but with no decision. I went on doing so until they (the Muslims) hastened and covered a good deal of distance. Then I wished to march on and join them. Would that I had done that! But perhaps it was not destined for me. After the departure of Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) whenever I went out, I was grieved to find no good example to follow but confirmed hypocrites or weak people whom Allah had exempted (from marching forth for Jihad). Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) made no mention of me until he reached Tabuk. While he was sitting with the people in Tabuk, he said, `What happened to Ka`b bin Malik?’ A person from Banu Salimah said: “O Messenger of Allah, the (beauty) of his cloak and an appreciation of his finery have detained him.’ Upon this Mu`adh bin Jabal (MatAllah be pleased with him) admonished him and said to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam): “By Allah, we know nothing about him but good.’ Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), however, kept quiet. At that time he (the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)) saw a person dressed in white and said, `Be Abu Khaithamah.‘ And was Abu Khaithamah Al-Ansari was the person who had contributed a Sa` of dates and was ridiculed by the hypocrites.” Ka`b bin Malik further said: “When the news reached me that Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) was on his way back from Tabuk, I was greatly distressed. I thought of fabricating an excuse and asked myself how I would save myself from his anger the next day. In this connection, I sought the counsels of every prudent member of my family. When I was told that Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) was about to arrive, all the wicked ideas vanished (from my mind) and I came to the conclusion that nothing but the truth could save me. So I decided to tell him the truth. It was in the morning that Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) arrived in Al-Madinah. It was his habit that whenever he came back from a journey, he would first go to the mosque and perform two Rak`ah (of optional prayer) and would then sit with the people. When he sat, those who had remained behind him began to put forward their excuses and take an oath before him. They were more than eighty in number. Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) accepted their excuses on the very face of them and accepted their allegiance and sought forgiveness for them and left their insights to Allah, until I appeared before him. I greeted him and he smiled and there was a tinge of anger in that. He then said to me, ‘Come forward’. I went forward and I sat in front of him. He said to me, `What kept you back? Could you not afford to go in for a ride?’ I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, by Allah, if I were to sit before anybody else, a man of the world, I would have definitely saved myself from his anger on one pretext or the other and I have a gifted skill in argumentation, but, by Allah, I am fully aware that if I were to put forward before you a lame excuse to please you, Allah would definitely provoke your wrath upon me. In case, I speak the truth, you may be angry with me, but I hope that Allah would be pleased with me (and accept my repentance). By Allah, there is no valid excuse for me. By Allah, I never possessed so good means, and I never had such favourable conditions for me as I had when I stayed behind.’ Thereupon, Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘This man spoke the truth, so get up (and wait) until Allah gives a decision about you.’ I left and some people of Banu Salimah followed me. They said to me, `By Allah, we do not know that you committed a sin before. You, however, showed inability to put forward an excuse before Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) like those who stayed behind him. It would have been enough for the forgiveness of your sin that Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) would have sought forgiveness for you.’ By Allah, they kept on reproaching me until I thought of going back to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and retract my confession. Then I said to them, ‘Has anyone else met the same fate?’ They said, ‘Yes, two persons have met the same fate. They made the same statement as you did and the same verdict was delivered in their case.’ I asked, `Who are they?’ They said, ‘Murarah bin Ar-Rabi` Al-`Amri and Hilal bin Umaiyyah Al-Waqifi.’ They mentioned these two pious men who had taken part in the battle of Badr and there was an example for me in them. I was confirmed in my original resolve. Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) prohibited the Muslims to talk to the three of us from amongst those who had stayed behind. The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us changed and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned against us, and it was in fact the same atmosphere of which I was fully aware and in which I had lived (for a fairly long time). We spent fifty nights in this very state and my two friends confined themselves within their houses and spent (most of their) time weeping. As I was the youngest and the strongest, I would leave my house, attend the congregational Salat, move about in the bazaars, but none would speak to me. I would come to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) as he sat amongst (people) after the Salat, greet him and would ask myself whether or not his lips moved in response to my greetings. Then I would perform Salat near him and look at him stealthily. When I finish my Salat, he would look at me and when I would cast a glance at him he would turn away his eyes from me. When the harsh treatment of the Muslims to me continued for a (considerable) length of time, I walked and I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Abu Qatadah, who was my cousin, and I had a great love for him. I greeted him but, by Allah, he did not answer to my greeting. I said to him, `O Abu Qatadah, I adjure you in the Name of Allah, are you not aware that I love Allah and His Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)?’ I asked him the same question again but he remained silent. I again adjured him, whereupon he said, `Allah and His Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) know better.’ My eyes were filled with tears, and I came back climbing down the wall.
As I was walking in the bazaars of Al-Madinah, a man from the Syrian peasants, who had come to sell food grains in Al-Madinah, asked people to direct him to Ka`b bin Malik. People pointed towards me. He came to me and delivered a letter from the King of Ghassan, and as I was a scribe, I read that letter whose purport was: `It has been conveyed to us that your friend (the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)) was treating you harshly. Allah has not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot find your right place; so come to us and we shall receive you graciously.’ As I read that letter I said: ‘This is too a trial,’ so I put it to fire in an oven. When forty days had elapsed and Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) received no Revelation, there came to me a messenger of the Messenger of Allah and said, `Verily, Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has commanded you to keep away from your wife.’ I said, `Should I divorce her or what else should I do?’ He said, `No, but only keep away from her and don’t have sexual contact with her.’ The same message was sent to my companions. So, I said to my wife: ‘You better go to your parents and stay there with them until Allah gives the decision in my case.’ The wife of Hilal bin Umaiyyah came to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, Hilal bin Umaiyyah is a senile person and has no servant. Do you disapprove if I serve him?’ He said, `No, but don’t let him have any sexual contact with you.‘ She said, ‘By Allah, he has no such desire left in him. By Allah, he has been in tears since (this calamity) struck him.’ Members of my family said to me, `You should have sought permission from Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in regard to your wife. He has allowed the wife of Hilal bin Umaiyyah to serve him.’ I said, ‘I would not seek permission from Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) for I do not know what Messenger of Allah might say in response to that, as I am a young man’. It was in this state that I spent ten more nights and thus fifty days had passed since people boycotted us and gave up talking to us. After I had offered my Fajr prayer on the early morning of the fiftieth day of this boycott on the roof of one of our houses, and had sat in the very state which Allah described as: `The earth seemed constrained for me despite its vastness’, I heard the voice of a proclaimer from the peak of the hill Sal` shouting at the top of his voice: ‘O Ka`b bin Malik, rejoice.’ I fell down in prostration and came to know that there was (a message of) relief for me. Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) had informed the people about the acceptance of our repentance by Allah after he had offered the Fajr prayer. So the people went on to give us glad tidings and some of them went to my companions in order to give them the glad tidings. A man spurred his horse towards me (to give the good news), and another one from the tribe of Aslam came running for the same purpose and, as he approached the mount, I received the good news which reached me before the rider did. When the one whose voice I had heard came to me to congratulate me, I took off my garments and gave them to him for the good news he brought to me. By Allah, I possessed nothing else (in the form of clothes) except these garments, at that time. Then I borrowed two garments, dressed myself and came to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) On my way, I met groups of people who greeted me for (the acceptance of) repentance and they said: ‘Congratulations for acceptance of your repentance.’ I reached the mosque where Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) was sitting amidst people. Talhah bin `Ubaidullah got up and rushed towards me, shook hands with me and greeted me. By Allah, no person stood up (to greet me) from amongst the Muhajirun besides him.” Ka`b said that he never forgot (this good gesture of) Talhah. Ka`b further said: “I greeted Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) with `As-salamu `alaikum’ and his face was beaming with pleasure. He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, `Rejoice with the best day you have ever seen since your mother gave you birth. ‘I said: `O Messenger of Allah! Is this (good news) from you or from Allah?’ He said, `No, it is from Allah.‘ And it was common with Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) that when ever he was happy, his face would glow as if it were a part of the moon and it was from this that we recognized it (his delight). As I sat before him, I said, I have placed a condition upon myself that if Allah accepts my Taubah, I would give up all of my property in charity for the sake of Allah and His Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)!’ Thereupon Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, `Keep some property with you, as it is better for you.’ I said, ‘I shall keep with me that portion which is in Khaibar’. I added: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Verily, Allah has granted me salvation because of my truthfulness, and therefore, repentance obliges me to speak nothing but the truth as long as I am alive.” Ka`b added: “By Allah, I do not know anyone among the Muslims who has been granted truthfulness better than me since I said this to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). By Allah! Since the time I made a pledge of this to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), I have never intended to tell a lie, and I hope that Allah would protect me (against telling lies) for the rest of my life. Allah, the Exalted, the Glorious, revealed these Verses:
‘Allah has forgiven the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), the Muhajirun (Muslim Emigrants who left their homes and came to Al-Madinah) and the Ansar (Muslims of Al-Madinah) who followed him (Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)) in the time of distress (Tabuk expedition), after the hearts of a party of them had nearly deviated (from the Right Path), but He accepted their repentance. Certainly, He is unto them full of kindness, Most Merciful. And (He did forgive also) the three who did not join [the Tabuk expedition and whose case was deferred (by the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)) for Allah’s Decision] till for them the earth, vast as it is, was straitened and their ownselves were straitened to them, and they perceived that there is no fleeing from Allah, and no refuge but with Him. Then, He forgave them (accepted their repentance), that they might beg for His Pardon [repent (unto Him)]. Verily, Allah is the One Who forgives and accepts repentance, Most Merciful. O you who believe! Be afraid of Allah, and be with those who are true (in word and deeds).” (9:117,118).
Ka`b said: “By Allah, since Allah guided me to Islam, there has been no blessing more significant for me than this truth of mine which I spoke to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), and if I were to tell a lie I would have been ruined as were ruined those who had told lies, for Allah described those who told lies with the worst description He ever attributed to anybody else, as He sent down the Revelation:
They will swear by Allah to you (Muslims) when you return to them, that you may turn away from them. So turn away from them. Surely, they are Rijsun [i.e., Najasun (impure) because of their evil deeds], and Hell is their dwelling place – a recompense for that which they used to earn. They (the hypocrites) swear to you (Muslims) that you may be pleased with them, but if you are pleased with them, certainly Allah is not pleased with the people who are Al-Fa’siqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah)”. (9:95,96)
Ka`b further added: “The matter of the three of us remained pending for decision apart from the case of those who had made excuses on oath before Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and he accepted those, took fresh oaths of allegiance from them and supplicated for their forgiveness. The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) kept our matter pending till Allah decided it. The three whose matter was deferred have been shown mercy. The reference here is not to our staying back from the expedition but to his delaying our matter and keeping it pending beyond the matter of those who made their excuses on oath which he accepted”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
Another version adds: “Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) set out for Tabuk on Thursday. He used to prefer to set out on journey on Thursday.” Another version says: “Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) used to come back from a journey in the early forenoon and went straight to the mosque where he would perform two Rak`ah prayer. Afterwards he would seat himself there”.
Commentary: This Hadith contains many aspects of warnings and advices, some of which are given below:
1. A Muslim should always speak the truth even if he has to face troubles and turmoil for it because the Pleasure of Allah lies in truth.
2. One must avoid at all costs the attitude of hypocrites because eventually one is ruined by it.
3. In spite of hardship and stringency, one must take part in Jihad.
4. For the admonition and exhortation of others, it gives justification for the economic boycott of even sincere Muslims who adopt wrong methods.
5. One must face with forbearance the difficulties which come in the way of Deen.
6. It is not praiseworthy that one gives in charity all the property he has. One must keep what is needed for the lawful needs.
7. It is lawful to give something by way of gift and reward to a person who congratulates in the events of happiness.
8.The ability to seek pardon is a gift from Allah for which one must express gratitude to Him.
9.Any promise that one makes must be kept, etc. etc.
22. Imran bin Al-Husain Al-Khuza`i (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: A woman from the tribe Juhainah came to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) while she was pregnant from (Zina) adultery and said to him: “O Messenger of Allah! I have committed an offense liable to Hadd (prescribed punishment), so exact the execution of the sentence.” Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) called her guardian and said to him, “Treat her kindly. Bring her to me after the delivery of the child.” That man complied with the orders. At last the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) commanded to carry out the sentence. Her clothes were secured around her and she was stoned to death. The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) led her funeral prayers. `Umar submitted: “O Messenger of Allah! She committed Zina and you have performed funeral prayer for her?” He replied, “Verily, she made repentance which would suffice for seventy of the people of Al-Madinah if it is divided among them. Can there be any higher degree of repentance than that she sacrificed her life voluntarily to win the Pleasure of Allah, the Exalted?”.
Commentary: This Hadith highlights the following five points:
1. It confirms the validity of the punishment of Rajm for the adulterer, that is to say that he should be stoned to death.
2. The merit of sincere pardon.
3.The description of fear of Allah as well as of accountability on the Day of Resurrection by the Prophet’s Companions, and their preference for punishment of sins in this world rather than in the Hereafter.
4. It is permissible to perform the funeral prayer of one who has been guilty of major sins, provided he has not been taking them as lawful because in that case there is danger of disbelief..
5. A pregnant woman cannot be punished with Rajm until she gives birth to the child and the period specified for suckling the baby is completed.
23. Ibn ‘Abbas and Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “If a son of Adam were to own a valley full of gold, he would desire to have two. Nothing can fill his mouth except the earth (of the grave). Allah turns with mercy to him who turns to Him in repentance”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith deals with man’s greed and his lust for material wealth. Only the person who has a perfect Faith can save himself from it.
24. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Allah, the Exalted, smiles at two men, one of them killed the other and both will enter Jannah. The first is killed by the other while he is fighting in the Cause of Allah, and thereafter Allah will turn in mercy to the second and guide him to accept Islam and then he dies as a Shaheed (martyr) fighting in the Cause of Allah.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
Commentary: Even the greatest sins, including those which one has committed before embracing Islam, are forgiven by repentance.
Smiling is also one of the Attributes of Allah, although we are unaware of the nature of it.
Imam Al-Nawawi’s Riyad-us-Saliheen
Sincerity and Significance of Intentions and all Actions, Apparent and Hidden
Allah, the Exalted, says:
“And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him), and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and give Zakat, and that is the right religion.” (98:5)
“It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, but it is piety from you that reaches Him.” (22:37)
“Say (O Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) ): Whether you hide what is in your breasts or reveal it, Allah knows it“. (3:29)
1. Narrated ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him), reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The deeds are considered by the intentions, and a person will get the reward according to his intention. So whoever emigrated for Allah and His Messenger, his emigration will be for Allah and His Messenger; and whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration would be for what he emigrated for“.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: According to some Ahadith, the reason for this Hadith is that a person sent a proposal of marriage to a woman named Umm Qais, which she turned down saying that he should have to emigrate to Al-Madinah for it. Accordingly, he did it for this specific purpose, and the two were married there. On account of this event, the man came to be known among the Companions as Muhajir Umm Qais.
On the basis of this Hadith, ‘Ulama’ are of the unanimous opinion that the real basis of one’s actions is Niyyah (intention) and everyone will be requited according to his Niyyah. It is true that Niyyah is founded in one’s heart, that is to say, one has first to make up one’s mind for what he intends to do and he should not express it verbally. In fact, the latter is a Bid`ah (innovation in religion) because no proof of it is found in Shariah.
The point which becomes evident from this Hadith is that Ikhlas (sincerity) is a must for every action. In other words, in every righteous deed, one should seek only the Pleasure of Allah; otherwise, it will not be accepted by Allah.
2. Narrated ‘A`ishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “An army will raid the Ka`bah and when it reaches a desert land, all of them will be swallowed up by the earth.” She asked; “O Messenger of Allah! Why all of them?” He answered, “All of them will be swallowed by the earth but they will be raised for Judgement according to their intentions.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Everyone will be rewarded or punished according to his aim and intention. This Hadith also proves that the company of depraved persons is extremely dangerous. Whose army would it be, which has been referred to in the Hadith, and when will it invade Ka`bah, is a matter known to Allah Alone. Such prophecies are a part of the Unseen world. Since they come in the category of the miracles of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), it is necessary to believe in their veracity and occurrence. Believing in such prophesies is also essential because they were revealed by Allah).
3. A`ishah (May Allah be pleased with her) narrated that the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “There is no emigration after the conquest (of Makkah) but only Jihad [(striving and fighting in the cause of Allah) will continue] and good intention.* So if you are summoned to fight, go forth.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
*. Intention according to An-Nawawi: It means that goodness which ceased to continue by the cessation of emigration can still be obtained by Jihad and by intending accomplishing good deeds.
Commentary. When a country or a region is regarded as Dar-ul-Islam (land of Islam), it is not necessary to migrate from it to some other place. It is, however, obligatory to emigrate from such regions which are Dar-ul-Kufr (land of infidels) and where it is difficult to adhere to Islamic injunctions. It is also evident from this Hadith that when it is not necessary to migrate from one Islamic country to another then it is also not permitted by the Shari`ah to leave an Islamic country to settle permanently in Dar-ul-Kufr only for the reason that the latter has plenty of wealth and social welfare. Unfortunately, Muslims today are afflicted with this disease. The transfer of their capital and talent to Dar-ul-Kufr is indeed very disturbing because on one side these two factors are lending support to the economy of Bilad-ul-Kufr (countries of infidels) and on the other, obscenity and indecency that are common in such countries, are becoming increasingly common among the Muslims too.
Another highly important reason for the prohibition of migration of Muslims to Dar-ul-Kufr is that it goes against the spirit as well as their readiness for Jihad fi sabilillah (striving and fighting in the way of Allah). This spirit and readiness must be kept always alive so that the Muslims may respond at once to the call of Jihad whenever the need for it arises anywhere.
4. Jabir bin Abdullah Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleasedwith them) reported: We accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in an expedition when he said, “There are some men in Al-Madinah who are with you wherever you march and whichever valley you cross. They have not joined you in person because of their illness.” In another version he said: “They share the reward with you.”
It is narrated by Bukhari from Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him): We were coming back from the battle of Tabuk with the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) when he remarked, “There are people whom we left behind in Al-Madinah who accompanied us in spirit in every pass and valley we crossed. They remained behind for a valid excuse.”
Commentary: What we learn from this Hadith is that if the intention and spirit of Jihad are present in the heart of a Muslim but physically he is unable to take part in it for valid reasons, he will get the reward of Jihad without even his actual participation in it.
5. Ma`n bin Yazid bin Akhnas (May Allah be pleased with them) (he, his father and his grandfather, all were Companions) reported: My father set aside some dinars for charity and gave them to a man in the mosque. I went to that man and took back those dinars. He said: “I had not intended you to be given.” So we went to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), and put forth the matter before him. He said to my father, “Yazid, you have been rewarded for what you intended.” And he said to me, “Ma`n, you are entitled to what you have taken.”
1. This Hadith leads us to the conclusion that if Sadaqah (charity), goes to a needy son of a Muslim, there is no need to take it back from him for the reason that the father had intended to give it to a deserving person. The former gets the reward for it on account of his Niyyah (intention). This however, will be reckoned as Nafli Sadaqah (voluntary charity) because the obligatory Zakat (Sadaqah) cannot be given to the donor’s own dependents.
2. It is permissible in Shari`ah to make someone a Wakil (attorney or agent) for Sadaqah.
3. It does not amount to disobedience on the part of a son to take his father to a competent authority or scholar to know the legal position on any issue, in the same way, as mutual discussion and debate on matters of Shari`ah does not amount to insolence. (Fath Al-Bari, chapter on Zakat).
6. Abu Ishaq Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas (May Allah be pleased with him) (one of the ten who had been given the glad tidings of entry into Jannah) narrated: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) visited me in my illness which became severe in the year of Hajjat-ul-Wada` (Farewell Pilgrimage). I said, “O Messenger of Allah, you can see the pain which I am suffering and I am a man of means and there is none to inherit from me except one daughter. Should I give two-thirds of my property in charity?” He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said,“No”. I asked him, “Then half?” He said, “No”. Then I asked, “Can I give away one-third”. He said, “Give away one-third, and that is still too much. It is better to leave your heirs well-off than to leave them poor, begging people. You will not expend a thing in charity for the sake of Allah, but you will be rewarded for it; even the morsel of food which you feed your wife”. I said, “O Messenger of Allah, would I survive my companions?” He said, “If you survive others and accomplish a thing for the sake of Allah, you would gain higher ranking and standing. You will survive them … your survival will be beneficial to people (the Muslim) and harmful to others (the enemies of Islam). You will survive others till the people will derive benefit from you, and others would be harmed by you.” Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) further said, “O Allah, complete for my Companions their emigration and do not cause them to retract.” Sa`d bin Khaulah was unfortunate. Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) lamented his death as he died in Makkah.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: In spite of all their love for it, the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) did not like to die in a city from which they emigrated for the sake of Allah. For this reason Sa`d (May Allah be pleased with him) was afraid of dying in Makkah. The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) prayed for the accomplishment of Sa`d’s emigration and expressed regret over the misfortune of Sa`d bin Khaulah. The latter died in Makkah.
1. The Hadith lays down that in the course of a disease which seems to prove fatal, one cannot give more than one-third of the property in charity.
2. It is also emphasized that one gets reward even for what he spends on his wife and children.
3. One can report to others his ailment or to seek treatment and ask them to supplicate from him.
4. In the matter of Sadaqah (charity), which one gives to seek the Pleasure of Allah, his closest relatives. should always have priority and preference over others.
7. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Allah does not look at your figures, nor at your attire but He looks at your hearts and accomplishments”.
Commentary: This Hadith highlights the importance of sincerity and good intention. It is, therefore, essential that every noble action should be based on these two virtues; and heart should be free from all such things that destroy noble deeds. Hypocrisy, ostentation, greed for wealth, riches and other wordly things fall in the category of such evils. Since the true condition of heart is known to Allah alone, the true position of one’s actions will be known on the Day of Resurrection when one will be requited for them by Alah. In this world, one will be treated according to his apparent condition while his insight will be left to Allah.
8. Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) was asked about who fights in the battlefield out of valour, or out of zeal, or out of hypocrisy, which of this is considered as fighting in the cause of Allah? He said: “He who fights in order that the Word of Allah remains the supreme, is considered as fighting in the cause of Allah”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Since one’s action will be evaluated in terms of intention, so he alone would be a Mujahid (warrior in the cause of Deen) who fights to glorify the Name of Allah.
9. Abu Bakrah Ath-Thaqafi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “When two Muslims are engaged in a combat against each other with their sword’s and one is killed, both are doomed to Hell”. I said, “O Messenger of Allah! As to the one who kills, it is understandable, but why the slain one?” He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) replied: “He was eager to kill his opponent”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith leads to the conclusion that one would be punished for such sinful intention for which he has made a firm determination, and for the commitment of which he has adopted necessary measures, even if he does not succeed in committing it because of certain obstruction. Thus determination is different from a suggestion of the devil. The latter is excusable while one is accountable for his determination. However, what is mentioned in the Hadith will happen when Muslims fight among themselves for worldly honour and prejudices, and no religious issue would be the cause of their conflict, because in the latter case, it is possible that both might be depending on their own Ijtihad (exercise of opinion) for which they may be excused.
10. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “The reward for Salat performed by a person in congregation is more than 20 times greater than that of the Salat performed in one’s house or shop. When one performs Wudu’ perfectly and then proceeds to the mosque with the sole intention of performing Salat, then for every step he takes towards the mosque, he is upgraded one degree in reward and one of his sins is eliminated until he enters the mosque, and when he enters the mosque, he is considered as performing Salat as long as it is the Salat which prevents him (from leaving the mosque); and the angels keep on supplicating Allah for him as long as he remains in his place of prayer. They say: ‘O Allah! have mercy on him; O Allah! forgive his sins; O Allah! accept his repentance’. This will carry on as long as he does not pass wind“.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith shows that although it is permissible to perform Salat individually in market places and houses, but its collective performance in the mosque is 25, 26, or 27 times more meritorious, as mentioned in other Ahadith.
11. `Abdullah bin `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said that Allah, the Glorious, said: “Verily, Allah (SWT) has ordered that the good and the bad deeds be written down. Then He explained it clearly how (to write): He who intends to do a good deed but he does not do it, then Allah records it for him as a full good deed, but if he carries out his intention, then Allah the Exalted, writes it down for him as from ten to seven hundred folds, and even more. But if he intends to do an evil act and has not done it, then Allah writes it down with Him as a full good deed, but if he intends it and has done it, Allah writes it down as one bad deed”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: What the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) relates to Allah is called Hadith Qudsi (Sacred Tradition). Such Hadith is revealed to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) by means of Ilham (inspiration). This Hadith mentions the magnitude of Divine blessings which He bestows upon His faithful slaves on the Day of Resurrection.
12. `Abdullah bin `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with them) narrated that: He heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) as saying: “Three men, amongst those who came before you, set out until night came and they reached a cave, so they entered it. A rock fell down from the mountain and blocked the entrance of the cave. They said: `Nothing will save you from this unless you supplicate to Allah by virtue of a righteous deed you have done.’ Thereupon, one of them said: `O Allah! I had parents who were old, and I used to offer them milk before any of my children or slaves. One day, I went far away in search of grazing and could not come back until they had slept. When I milked as usual and brought the drink I found them both asleep. I hated to disturb them and also disliked to give milk to my children before them. My children were crying out of hunger at my feet but I awaited with the bowl in my hand for them to wake up. When they awoke at dawn, they drank milk. O Allah! If I did so to seek Your Pleasure, then deliver us from the distress caused by the rock’. The rock moved slightly but they were unable to escape. The next said: `O Allah! I had a cousin whom I loved more than any one else (in another version he said: as a man can love a woman). I wanted to have sexual intercourse with her but she refused. Hard pressed in a year of famine, she approached me. I gave her one hundred and twenty dinars on condition that she would yield herself to me. She agreed and when we got together (for sexual intercourse), she said: Fear Allah and do not break the seal unlawfully. I moved away from her in spite of the fact that I loved her most passionately; and I let her keep the money I had given her. O Allah! If I did that to seek Your Pleasure, then, remove the distress in which we are.’ The rock moved aside a bit further but they were still unable to get out. The third one said: `O Allah! I hired some labourers and paid them their wages except one of them departed without taking his due. I invested his money in business and the business prospered greatly. After a long time, he came to me and said: O slave of Allah! Pay me my dues. I said: All that you see is yours – camels, cattle, goats and slaves. He said: O slave of Allah! Do not mock at me. I assured him that I was not joking. So he took all the things and went away. He spared nothing. O Allah! If I did so seeking Your Pleasure, then relieve us of our distress.’ The rock slipped aside and they got out walking freely”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
1. It is permissible to pray through our virtuous deeds. But to make someone a medium for it, is an innovation in Deen which should be avoided for two major reasons. Firstly, there is no evidence in Shari`ah to support this. Secondly, it is against the practice of Khair-ul-Qurun, the best of generations. (This term is used for the first three generations of Muslims, the one in which the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) lived and the two following).
2. Preference should be given to the service of parents, even over the service of one’s own wife and children.
3. To abstain from sins out of fear of Allah is a highly meritorious act.
4. Labourers should always be treated fairly. If someone has paid to a labourer less than his due, it should be paid to him in a decent manner.
5. Any supplication which is made sincerely, and with real sense of humbleness is granted by Allah.
6. Allah sometimes helps His pious men even in an unusual manner, which is termed as Karamat (wonder or marvel). Thus, like the miracles of the Prophets, wonders of the righteous people are also true. But miracles and wonders both appear with the Will of Allah.
Another important and basic deed needed to be backed by sincere intention helping us in elevating our Provision is repentance and seeking forgiveness… Sincere repentance do opens the way to get a gain in Provision as Allah the Exalted mentions the event of Prophet Nooh peace and blessings be upon him; as said in the Quran:
“I said (to them): ‘Ask forgiveness from your Lord; Verily, He is Oft-Forgiving; ‘He will send rain to you in abundance; ‘And give you increase in wealth and children, and bestow on you gardens and bestow on you rivers.'” Surah Nooh 10 – 12
The above set of verses brings glad tidings of vastness in Provision; if; we sincerely repent and turn towards Allah Almighty for forgiveness and submit ourselves to obey the commands of Allah the Most High and Sublime. The verse mentions the reward in the form of increased provisions, blessings from the Heavens, birth of plantations from the earth (including the gardens midst of flowing river with fruits), increased benefits from the animals e.g. milk et cetra, and bestowal and increase in children and wealth.
At another place in the Quran, Allah says:
“And (commanding you): “Seek the forgiveness of your Lord, and turn to Him in repentance, that He may grant you good enjoyment, for a term appointed, and bestow His abounding Grace to every owner of grace (i.e. the one who helps and serves needy and deserving, physically and with his wealth, and even with good words). But if you turn away, then I fear for you the torment of a Great Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection).” Surah Hood 3
The above verse mentions good enjoyment, gain in provision and the bestowal of bounties as a result of sincere repentance.
The Prophet (ﷺ) said,// // “Allah will relieve one who excessively seeks His forgiveness from all grief, find a way out for him from all hardships and provide him from means which he could never have expected.” Abu Daud
The invocation benefiting for forgiveness which brings provision, increases it and blesses it is that which is made from the heart as well as the tongue, while we are not persistent in our sins. However, if we seek forgiveness verbally, whilst at the same time committing different forms of sins, we are not truthful in our invocations and these sorts of invocations would be fruitless. In short, its sincerity in intention and parting from the sin that can be termed as prerequisite to the fruitful invocation to seek the Almighty’s forgiveness.
Brother and Sisters in Islam; if Allah the Glorified has provided for us abundantly then we must rush to repentance and follow our words with actions. We should beware of uttering invocations with our tongue alone because these are the actions of a liar.
For further read the next part would contain more evidences from the Quran and Sunnah on repentance and sincerity…
to be cont. …..