When we need to lengthen a letter (e.g pronounce a Madd letter), we use the empty space of our mouth and throat to produce this sound. No other part of the mouth is used to lengthen a sound. The green area inside the image shows the empty mouth and throat area used to produce the Madd sound…..
Following examples will help to understand inshaAllah…
بَ = it’s pronounced short as ‘ba’ in “banana”
بَا = it’s pronounced a little elongated because of the ‘alif madd’ as ‘baa’ in “basket”
(p.s. rules posted in future will add more to this topic of madd letters)
In the above images, ZABAR=FATHAH; ZAIR=KASRAH; PAISH=DAMMAH…..